Buddhism in the World (text)
563 BCE Birth of Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha
Although the dates of the Buddha remain a point of controversy within both the Buddhist and scholarly communities, according to one widely accepted traditional account, Siddhartha was born as a prince in the Shakya clan in 563. After achieving enlightenment at the age of 36, the Buddha spent the remainder of his life giving spiritual guidance to an ever-growing body of disciples. He is said to have entered into parinirvana in 483 at the age of 81.
c. 480 BCE The First Council
A group of the Buddha’s disciples are said to have come together shortly after the Buddha’s parinirvana in hopes of establishing guidelines to ensure the continuity of the Sangha. According to tradition, as many as 500 prominent arhats gathered in Rajagriha to recite together and standardize the Buddha’s sutras (discourses on Dharma) and vinaya (rules of conduct).
c. 350 BCE The Second Council
It remains unclear if what is known as the Second Council refers to one particular assemblage of monks, or if there were several meetings convened during the 4th century BCE to clarify points of controversy. It also remains unclear precisely what matters of doctrine or conduct were in dispute. What is clear is that this council resulted in the first schism in the Sangha, that between the Sthaviravada (in Pali, Theravada) and the Mahasanghika.
269-232 BCE The Spread of Buddhism Through South and Southeast Asia
After witnessing the great bloodshed and suffering caused by his military campaigns, Emperor Ashoka Maurya converted to Buddhism, sending missionaries throughout India and into present day Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, and Cambodia.
200 BCE-200 CE Emergence of Mahayana Buddhism from “Hinayana”
Differing interpretations of the Buddha’s teachings developed into two main schools. One, which referred to itself as Mahayana or “Great Vehicle,” disparagingly referred to the other branch as Hinayana or “Small Vehicle.” Today, Theravada, the “Way of the Elders,” is the only surviving example of the 18 schools that had been lumped under the rubric “Hinayana.” Theravada Buddhism is followed in Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, and Laos. Mahayana traditions may be found in China, Korea, and Japan.
65 CE First Mention of Buddhism in China
Han dynasty records note that Prince Ying of Ch’u, a half-brother of the Han emperor, provided a vegetarian feast for the Buddhist laity and monks living in his kingdom, indicating that a Buddhist community had already formed there.
c. 100 CE Ashvaghosha Writes Buddhacarita
Among the early biographies of the Buddha was the Buddhacarita, written by the Indian poet Ashvaghosha. Buddhacarita, literally “Life of the Buddha,” is regarded as one of the greatest epic poems in Sanskrit, or any language.
200s CE Nagarjuna Founds the Madhyamaka School
Based on his reading of the Perfection of Wisdom sutras, Nagarjuna argued that everything in the world, even its most fundamental elements, is sunya, “empty,” that is, without inherent existence. This idea that the world is real, yet radically impermanent and interdependent, has played a central role in Buddhist philosophy.
372 CE Buddhism Introduced to Korea from China
In 372 the Chinese king Fu Chien sent a monk-envoy, Shun-tao, to the Koguryo court with scriptures and images. Although all three of the kingdoms on the Korean peninsula soon embraced Buddhism, it was not until the unification of the peninsula under the Silla in 668 that the tradition truly flourished.
400s CE Buddhaghosa Systematizes Theravada Teachings
Buddhaghosa played a formative role in the systematization of Theravada doctrine. After arriving in Sri Lanka in the early part of the fifth century, this South Indian monk devoted himself to editing and translating into Pali the scriptural commentaries that had accumulated in the native Sinhalese language. He also composed the Visuddhimagga, “Path of Purity,” a very influential treatise on Theravada practice. From this point on, Theravada became the dominant form of Buddhism in Sri Lanka and eventually would spread to Southeast Asia.
402 CE Pure Land Buddhism Established in China
Hui-yuan was the first Chinese monk to form a group specifically devoted to reciting the vow to be reborn in the Western Paradise, founding the Donglin Temple at Mount Lu for this purpose. Subsequent Pure Land practitioners regard him as the school’s founding patriarch.
520 CE Bodhidharma, First Patriarch of Ch’an (Zen), Arrives in China
The Ch’an (Zen) school traces its establishment to the arrival of the monk Bodhidharma in Northern China. There he is said to have spent nine years meditating in front of a wall before silently transmitting the Buddha’s Dharma to Shen-Kuang, the second patriarch. All Zen masters trace their authority to this line of transmission.
552 CE Buddhism Enters Japan from Korea
In 552 the king of Paekche sent an envoy to Japan in hopes of gaining military support. As gifts, he sent an image of Buddha, several Buddhist scriptures, and a memorial praising Buddhism. Within three centuries, the tradition would become the major spiritual and intellectual force in the country.
700s CE Vajrayana Buddhism Emerges in Tibet
Buddhist teachings and practices appear to have first made their way into Tibet in the mid-7th century. During the reign of King Khri-srong (c. 740-798), the first monastery was founded and the first monk ordained. For the next four hundred years, a constant flow of Tibetan monks made their way to Northern India to study at the great Buddhist universities. It was from the university of Vikramasila that the yogin-magician Padmasambhava is said to have carried the Vajrayana teachings to Tibet, where they soon became the dominant form of Buddhism.
1044-1077 CE Theravada Buddhism Established in Burma
Theravada Buddhism was practiced in pockets of southern Burma since about the 6th century CE. It was not until King Anawrahta ascended the throne in 1044, however, that Shin Arahan, a charismatic Mon monk from Southern Burma, convinced the new monarch to establish a more strictly Theravadin expression of Buddhism for the entire kingdom. From that time on, Theravada would remain the religion of the majority of the Burmese people.
c. 1050 CE Development of Jogye Buddhism in Korea
The Ch’an school, which first arrived to Korea from China in the 8th century, eventually established nine branches, known as the Nine Mountains. In the 11th century these branches were organized into one system under the name of Jogye. Although all Buddhist teachings were given their place, the kong-an (koan) practice of Lin-chi Yixuan gained highest stature as the most direct path to enlightenment.
1100s CE Pure Land Buddhism Established in Japan
Following a reading of a Chinese Pure Land text, the Japanese monk Honen Shonin (1133-1212) became convinced that, in his degenerate times, the only effective mode of practice was nembutsu, chanting the name of Amitabha Buddha. This soon became a dominant form of practice in Japan.
1100s CE Rinzai School of Zen Buddhism Established in Japan
The monk Eisai returned from China, bringing tea and founding the Rinzai school of Zen. In the form of meditation practiced by this school, the student’s only guidance is to come from the subtle hint of a raised eyebrow, the sudden jolt of an unexpected slap, or the teacher’s direct questioning on the meaning of a koan.
1203 CE Destruction of Buddhist Centers in India
By the close of the first millennium CE Buddhism had passed its zenith in India. Traditionally, the end of Indian Buddhism is identified with the advent of Muslim Rule in Northern India. The Turk Muhammad Ghuri razed the last two great Buddhist universities, Nalanda and Vikramasila, in 1197 and 1203 respectively. However, recent histories have suggested that Muhammad Ghuri’s razing of these monasteries was a military action, not one necessarily motivated by religion.
1200s CE True Pure Land Buddhism Established
Honen’s disciple Shinran Shonin (1173-1262) began the devotional “True Pure Land” movement. Considering the lay/monk distinction invalid, Shinran married and had several children, thereby initiating the practice of married Jodo Shinshu clergy and establishing a familial lineage of leadership, traits which continue to distinguish the school to this day.
1200s CE Soto Zen Founded in Japan
Dogen (1200-1253) spent most of his two years in China studying T’ien-t’ai Buddhism. Disappointed by the intellectualism of the school, he was about to return to Japan when the Ts’ao-tung monk Ju-ching (Rujing) explained that the practice of Zen simply meant “dropping off both body and mind.” Dogen, immediately enlightened, returned to Japan, establishing Soto (the Japanese pronunciation of the Chinese graphs for Ts’ao-tung) as one of the pre-eminent schools.
1253 CE Nichiren Buddhism Established in Japan
As the sun began to rise on May 17, 1253, Nichiren Daishonin climbed to the crest of a hill, where he cried out “Namu Myoho Renge Kyo,” “Adoration to the Sutra of the Lotus of the Perfect Truth.” Nichiren considered the recitation of this mantra to be the core of the true teachings of the Buddha and was convinced that it would eventually spread throughout the world, a conviction sustained by current sects of the school, especially the Soka Gakkai.
1279-1360 CE Theravada Buddhism Established in Southeast Asia
With Kublai Khan’s conquest of China in the thirteenth century, ever greater numbers of Tai migrated from southwestern China into present day Thailand and Burma. There they established political domination over the indigenous Mon and Khmer peoples, while appropriating elements of these cultures, including their Buddhist faith. By the time that the great King Rama Khamhaeng had ascended the throne in Sukhothai (central Thailand) in 1279, a monk had been sent to Sri Lanka to receive Theravadin texts. During the reigns of Rama Khamhaeng’s son and grandson, Sinhala Buddhism spread northward to the Tai Kingdom of Chiangmai. Within a century, the royal houses of Cambodia and Laos also became Theravadin.
1881 CE Founding of Pali Text Society
Ever since its founding by the British scholar T.W. Rhys Davids, the Pali Text Society has been the primary publisher of Theravada texts and translations into Western languages.
1891 CE Anagarika Dharmapala Founds Mahabodhi Society
Anagarika Dharmapala played an important role in restoring Bodh-Gaya, the site of the Buddha’s enlightenment, which had badly deteriorated after centuries of neglect. In order to raise funds for this project, Dharmapala founded the Mahabodhi Society, first in Ceylon and later in India, the United States, and Britain. He also edited the society’s periodical, the Mahabodhi Journal .
1930 CE Soka Gakkai Established in Japan
Soka Gakkai was begun in 1930 by an educator named Tsunesaburo Makiguchi. Soon after its founding, it became associated with Nichiren Shoshu, a sect of Nichiren Buddhism. Today the organization has over twelve million members around the world.
1938 CE Rissho Kosei-Kai Established in Japan
This movement, founded by the Rev. Nikkyo Niwano, is based on the teachings set forth in the Lotus Sutra and works for individual and world peace. Rev. Niwano was awarded the Templeton Prize for Progress in Religion in 1979 and honored by the Vatican in 1992. The Rissho Kosei-Kai has been active in interfaith activities throughout the world.
1949 CE Buddhist Sangha Flees Mainland China
With the establishment of the People’s Republic of China, Buddhist monks and nuns fled to Hong Kong, Taiwan, Malaysia, and Singapore. Many of these monks and nuns have subsequently immigrated to Australia, Europe and the United States.
1950 CE World Fellowship of Buddhists Inaugurated in Sri Lanka
The WFB was established to bring Buddhists together in promoting Buddhist goals. Since 1969, its permanent headquarters have been in Thailand, with regional offices in 34 different countries.
1956 CE Buddhism Returns to India
On October 14, 1956 Bhim Rao Ambedkar (1891-1956), India’s leader of Hindu untouchables, publicly converted to Buddhism as part of a political protest. As many as half a million of his followers also took the three refuges and five precepts on that day. In the following years, over four million Indians, chiefly from the castes of untouchables, declared themselves Buddhists.
1959 CE Dalai Lama Flees to India
With the Chinese occupation of Tibet, the Dalai Lama, the Karmapa, and other Vajrayana Buddhist leaders fled to India. A Tibetan government in exile was established in Dharamsala, India.
1966 CE Thich Nhat Hanh to U.S. and Western Europe
The Fellowship of Reconciliation invited Thich Nhat Hanh to tour the U.S. in 1966 to explain to the American public the meaning of the Buddhist-led demonstrations against the American-supported Saigon government. As the result of his outspoken appraisal of the Saigon government’s policies during this tour, Nhat Hanh faced certain imprisonment upon his return to Vietnam. He therefore decided to take asylum in France, where he founded Plum Village, today an important center for meditation and action.
1975 CE Devastation of Buddhism in Cambodia
Pol Pot’s Marxist regime declared Year Zero upon coming to power. In the next four years, most of Cambodia’s 3,600 Buddhist temples were destroyed. The Sangha was left with an estimated 3,000 of its 50,000 monks. The rest did not survive the persecution.
1989 CE Founding of the International Network of Engaged Buddhists (INEB)
INEB began in Thailand as a conference of 36 monks and lay persons from 11 countries. Today, it has expanded to 160 members and affiliates from 26 countries. As its name suggests, INEB endeavors to facilitate Buddhist participation in social action in order to create a just and peaceful world.
1989 CE Dalai Lama Receives Nobel Peace Prize
Tenzin Gyatso, the Fourteenth Dalai Lama, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his tireless work spreading a message of non-violence. He has said on many occasions about Buddhism, “My religion is very simple–my religion is kindness.”
2010 CE Western Buddhist Teachers called for U.S. Commission of Inquiry to Burma
Prominent Buddhist teachers in the U.S. signed a letter to President Barack Obama demanding that the U.S. press Burma on crimes against humanity on ethnic nationalities, in light of the upcoming Burmese election.
Buddhism in America (text)
1853 CE The First Chinese Temple in “Gold Mountain”
Chinese workers and miners, bringing Buddhist and Taoist traditions with them, were attracted by the Gold Rush to California, which they called Gold Mountain. They built their first temple in San Francisco’s Chinatown. By 1875, Chinatown was home to eight temples; and by the end of the century, there were hundreds of Chinese temples and shrines on the West Coast.
1869 CE Weaverville Joss House
The oldest Chinese temple still standing is today maintained by the Weaverville Historical Society in Weaverville, California. Among the images of various Taoist and folk deities is also one of Kuan-yin, the bodhisattva of compassion. It was rebuilt in 1874 after the original structure burned down.
1875 CE The Theosophical Society
The Theosophical Society was formed in New York under the direction of Henry Steel Olcott and Madame Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, both of whom took the five precepts of a lay Buddhist in Sri Lanka. The Society promoted the study of Buddhism along with other spiritual traditions. Olcott’s Buddhist Catechism, published in 1881, became popular throughout the Buddhist world.
1878 CE Kuan-yin in Hawaii
The monk Leong Dick Ying brought gold-leaf images of the Taoist sage Kuan Kung, and Kuan-yin, the bodhisattva of compassion, to Honolulu. The Kuan-yin Temple is the oldest Chinese organization in Hawaii. It has been located on Vineland Avenue in Honolulu since 1921.
1879 CE The Light of Asia Comes West
Sir Edwin Arnold’s The Light of Asia, a biography of the Buddha in verse, was published. This immensely popular book, which went through eighty editions and sold over half a million copies, gave many Americans their first introduction to the Buddha.
1882 CE Chinese Exclusion Act
Two decades of growing anti-Chinese sentiment led to the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act. The act barred new Chinese immigration for ten years, including that by women trying to join their husbands who were already in the U.S., and prohibited the naturalization of Chinese people.
1889 CE First Japanese Buddhist Temple in Hawaii
A temple of the Jodo Shinshu lineage was established for Japanese immigrants on the island of Hawaii. This lineage later became known as the Honpa Hongwanji Mission of Hawaii (Hawaii was not annexed to the United States until 1898), and the mission continues to serve Hawaiian Buddhists today.
1890 CE The Boston Buddhists
Ernest Fenollosa, a Harvard graduate and philosophy professor at the Tokyo Imperial University, and William Bigelow, a Harvard Medical School doctor, returned to Boston after several years in Japan. While there, both of them took the precepts as Tendai Buddhists. Their collection of Asian art, now part of the collection of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, afforded Americans an appreciation of Buddhism and eastern aesthetics. After their deaths, Fenollosa and Bigelow had a part of their ashes sent to Miidera, the Tendai temple in Japan where they had studied.
1893 CE World’s Parliament of Religions
The Parliament, held in Chicago in conjunction with the World Columbian Exposition, included representatives of many strands of the Buddhist tradition: Anagarika Dharmapala (Sri Lankan Maha Bodhi Society), Shaku Soyen (Japanese Rinzai Zen), Toki Horyu (Shingon), Ashitsu Jitsunen (Tendai), Yatsubuchi Banryu (Jodo Shin), and Hirai Kinzo (a Japanese lay Buddhist). Days after the Parliament, in a ceremony conducted by Anagarika Dharmapala, Charles T. Strauss of New York City became the first person to be ordained into the Buddhist Sangha on American soil.
1894 CE The Gospel of Buddha
This influential book, published by Paul Carus, brought a selection of Buddhist texts together in readable fashion for a popular audience. It had been through 13 editions by 1910.
1898 CE Jodo Shinshu Buddhism in San Francisco
The Rev. Dr. Shuya Sonoda and the Rev. Kakuryo Nishijima arrived in San Francisco, as missionaries of Jodo Shinshu. The Young Men’s Buddhist Association (Bukkyo Seinenkai), the first Japanese Buddhist organization on the U.S. mainland, was then founded in 1899 under their guidance. The following years saw temples established in Sacramento (1899), Fresno (1900), Seattle (1901), Oakland (1901), San Jose (1902), Portland (1903), and Stockton (1906). This organization, initially called the Jodo Shinshu Buddhist Mission of North America, went on to become the Buddhist Churches of America, today the largest Buddhist organization serving Japanese-Americans.
1900 CE First Non-Asian Buddhist Association
A group of Euro-Americans attracted to the Buddhist teachings of the Jodo Shinshu organized the Dharma Sangha of the Buddha, in San Francisco.
1906 CE Separate Education for Asians in California
The California State Board of Education enacted legislation calling for “separate but equal” public schools for Asians and Asian Americans.
1915 CE World Buddhist Conference
Buddhists from throughout the world gathered in San Francisco, from August 2 to 8, at a meeting convened by the Jodo Shinshu Buddhist Mission of North America. Resolutions from the conference were taken to President Woodrow Wilson.
1927 CE Soto Zen Mission in Los Angeles
The Soto Zen Mission of Los Angeles, called Zenshuji, was established as the headquarters of the North American Soto Zen Buddhist order, to serve Japanese Americans and others in Los Angeles interested in Zen meditation.
1931 CE Zen in New York
The Buddhist Society of America was incorporated in New York under the guidance of Rinzai Zen teacher Sokei-an. Sokei-an had first come to the U.S. from 1906 to 1910 to study with Shokatsu Shaku, in California. He completed his training in Japan where he was ordained in 1931. Sokei-an died of poor health in 1945, after having spent two years in a Japanese internment camp from 1942-1943. The center he established in New York City would evolve into the First Zen Institute of America.
1932 CE The Buddhist Bible
Dwight Goddard, who studied Buddhist meditation practice in both China and Japan, tried to establish an American monastic community dedicated to practice in Thetford, Vermont. It was not a success, but Goddard’s anthology of Buddhist sources, The Buddhist Bible, made an enduring contribution to Americans’ understanding of Buddhism.
1935 CE Relics of the Buddha to San Francisco
A portion of the Buddha’s relics was presented to Bishop Masuyama of the Jodo Shinshu Buddhist Mission of North America, based in San Francisco. This led to the construction of a new building which had a stupa on its roof for the holy relics– the Buddhist Church of San Francisco on Pine Street, completed in 1938.
1942 CE Internment of Japanese Americans
Two months after Pearl Harbor, President Franklin Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066 which eventually removed 120,000 Japanese Americans, both citizens and noncitizens, to internment camps where they remained until the end of World War II. Buddhist priests and other community leaders were among the first to be targeted and evacuated. Zen teachers Sokei-an and Nyogen Senzaki were interned. Buddhist organizations continued to serve the internees in the camps.
1944 CE Buddhist Churches of America Incorporates
At a meeting in the Topaz War Relocation Center in Utah, the national organization of Japanese Jodo Shinshu Buddhists, known as the Buddhist Mission of North America, formally incorporated under the new name Buddhist Churches of America. Today there are some 60 temples and a membership of about 19,000.
1944 CE Buddhist Temple of Chicago
The Buddhist Temple of Chicago was established as a nonsectarian temple in the Mahayana tradition by Rev. Gyomay M. Kobose. He would later found the Chicago-based American Buddhist Association, the first nonsectarian religious organization of American Buddhists, in 1955.
1949 CE Buddhist Studies Center in Berkeley
The Buddhist Studies Center was established in Berkeley, California, under the auspices of the Buddhist Churches of America. In 1966, the center changed its name to the Institute of Buddhist Studies. It is active today in training clergy for the Buddhist Churches of America.
1950 CE D.T. Suzuki in New York
D.T. Suzuki first came to the United States in 1897, spending the next fourteen years translating Taoist and Buddhist works and writing introductory texts to Mahayana philosophy and history. After returning to Japan in 1911, he and his wife, the American theosophist Beatrice Erskine Lane, founded the English-language journal, The Eastern Buddhist, in 1921. He returned to the United States in 1949, teaching at the University of Hawaii and then Claremont Graduate School. A year later he gained a position at Columbia University. Suzuki’s writings and seminars led to Zen’s popularity in the late 1950s, mediated in part through such Beat Buddhists as Alan Watts, Allen Ginsberg, Jack Kerouac, and Gary Snyder.
1955 CE Beat Zen
The first public reading of the poem “Howl” by Allen Ginsberg at the Six Gallery in San Francisco is said to have signalled the beginning of the Beat Zen movement.
1957 CE Cambridge Buddhist Association
The Cambridge Buddhist Association was founded in Cambridge, Massachusetts, as a non-sectarian meditation and study center. Since its founding it has had a number of directors from different lineages, including Hisamatsu Shinichi (Rinzai Zen), Masatoshi Nagatomi (Jodo Shinshu), Maurine Stuart (Rinzai Zen), and George Bowman (Korean Chogye).
1957 CE Zen Boom
In the late 1950s, several popular books on Buddhism were published, including Alan Watt’s bestseller The Way of Zen and Jack Kerouac’s The Dharma Bums.
1959 CE Sino-American Buddhist Association
The Sino-American Buddhist Association was established under the direction of Ch’an Master Hsuan Hua from Hong Kong. In 1976, it evolved into the Dharma Realm Buddhist Association with headquarters at the City of 10,000 Buddhas in Talmage, California. Today the Dharma Realm Buddhist Association has temples in San Francisco, Los Angeles, Seattle, Maryland, Vancouver, and Calgary.
1960 CE Soka Gakkai in the U.S.
Daisaku Ikeda (President of Soka Gakkai) visited the United States. By 1992, Soka Gakkai International–USA estimated that it had 150,000 American members.
1962 CE San Francisco Zen Center
The San Francisco Zen Center was established for the practice of Soto Zen Buddhism under the direction of Shunryu Suzuki-roshi, whose book, Zen Mind, Beginner’s Mind, is a classic introduction to Zen meditation.
1962 CE Joshu Sasaki-roshi in Los Angeles
Sasaki-roshi, one of America’s foremost Zen masters, first taught in a garage and then later in a dentist’s office before establishing the Cimarron Zen Center in South Central Los Angeles, in 1968. In 2012, allegations emerged that described Sasaki-roshi’s continuous sexual misconduct stretching back over twenty years.
1964 CE Buddhist Association of the United States
The largest Chinese Buddhist group in the New York area established headquarters in the Bronx. In 1981, under the inspiration of one of its leading teachers, Dr. Chia Theng Shen, the Association also built a substantial rural monastic center, the Chuang Yen Monastery, in Kent, New York.
1965 CE Immigration and Nationality Act
This act ended the quota system, enacted in 1924, which had virtually halted immigration from Asia to the United States for over forty years. Following 1965, growing numbers of Asian immigrants from South, Southeast, and East Asia settled in America; many brought Buddhist traditions with them.
1966 CE Thich Nhat Hanh to America
In the midst of the Vietnam conflict, Vietnamese monks in Saigon immolated themselves–an act the entire world witnessed through press coverage. Secretary of State Henry Cabot Lodge then met with Vietnamese and Japanese Buddhist leaders, and the State Department established an Office of Buddhist Affairs headed by Claremont College Professor Richard Gard. While Americans were reacting to the monks’ acts of self-immolation, another Vietnamese monk, named Thich Nhat Hanh, came to the United States to speak about the conflict. His visit, coupled with the publication in English of his book, Lotus in a Sea of Fire, so impressed Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. that King nominated Nhat Hanh for the Nobel Peace Prize.
1966 CE First Buddhist Monastery in Washington D.C.
The Washington Buddhist Vihara, established in Washington, D.C., as a missionary center with the support of the Sri Lankan government, was the first Sri Lankan Buddhist temple in America. The Ven. Bope Vinita Thera brought an image and a relic of the Buddha to the nation’s capital in 1965. The following year, the Vihara was incorporated and, in 1968, it moved to its present location on 16th Street, NW.
1966 CE First Buddhist Seminary in Berkeley
The Buddhist Studies Center in Berkeley, founded in 1949, changed its name to the Institute of Buddhist Studies and became the first seminary for Buddhist ministry and research under the auspices of the Buddhist Churches of America. It affiliated with the Graduate Theological Union in 1985, and currently offers three degrees, a Master of Jodo Shinshu Studies, a Master of Buddhist Studies, and a PhD in Cultural and Historical Studies of Religion with a focus in Buddhist Studies.
1967 CE Zen Center of Los Angeles
The Center was established under the direction of Taizan Maezumi-roshi. Some of those trained at ZCLA would be among the first American-born cohort of roshis: Bernard Tetsugen Glassman (Yonkers), Jan Chozen Bays (Portland), and John Daido Loori (Mt. Tremper, New York).
1969 CE Tibetan Center in Berkeley
Tarthang Tulku, a Tibetan monk educated at Banaras Hindu University in India, came to Berkeley and within a few years established the Nyingma Meditation Center, the first Tibetan Buddhist center in the U.S.
1970 CE Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche to America.
This Oxford-educated Tibetan teacher brought the Karma Kagyu Tibetan Buddhist lineage to the U.S. He first taught at Tail of the Tiger (now Karme-Choling), a center on a farm his students purchased in Barnet, Vermont. In 1971, he established Karma Dzong in Boulder, Colorado. In 1973, he founded Vajradhatu, an organization consolidating many Dharmadhatu centers. Cutting through Spiritual Materialism, a classic introduction to Trungpa’s form of Tibetan Buddhism, was published in 1973.
1970 CE International Buddhist Meditation Center
IBMC was established by Ven. Dr. Thich Thien-An, a Vietnamese Zen Master, in Los Angeles. The College of Buddhist Studies is also located on the grounds of the Center, which is currently under the direction of Thien-An’s student, Ven. Karuna Dharma.
1972 CE Korean Zen Master to Rhode Island
Zen Master Seung Sahn came to the United States with little money and little knowledge of English. He rented an apartment in Providence and worked as a washing machine repairman. A note on his door said simply, “What am I?” and announced meditation classes. Thus began the Providence Zen Center, followed soon by Korean Zen Centers in Cambridge, New Haven, New York, and Berkeley, all part of the Kwan Um School of Zen.
1972 CE Wat Thai in Los Angeles
Land for a temple was purchased on Cold Water Canyon Boulevard in North Hollywood, opening rites were performed, and monks began living in a residence on the property in 1972. The main hall of Wat Thai, the first Thai Buddhist temple in America, was completed and consecrated in 1979.
1974 CE Buddhist Chaplain in California
The California State Senate appointed Rev. Shoko Masunaga as its first Buddhist and first Asian-American chaplain.
1974 CE First Buddhist Liberal Arts College
Naropa Institute was founded in Boulder, Colorado, as a Buddhist-inspired, but non-sectarian liberal arts college, which aimed to combine contemplative studies with traditional Western scholastic and artistic disciplines. The accredited college now offers courses at the undergraduate and graduate levels in Buddhist studies, contemplative psychotherapy, environmental studies, poetics, and dance.
1974 CE Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance
Robert Pirsig’s novel popularized the image and teaching of Zen in the American literary imagination.
1974 CE Redress for Internment of Japanese Americans
Rep. Phillip Burton of California addressed the U.S. House of Representatives on the topic “Seventy-five Years of American Buddhism” as part of an ongoing debate surrounding redress for Japanese Americans interned during World War II.
1975 CE The Fall of Saigon and the Arrival of Vietnamese Refugees
About 130,000 Vietnamese refugees, many of them Buddhists, came to the U.S. in 1975 alone. By 1985 there were 643,200 Vietnamese in the U.S. Dr. Thich Thien-an, a Vietnamese monk and scholar already in Los Angeles, began the Chua Vietnam in 1976. It was the first Vietnamese Buddhist temple in America and is still thriving on Berendo Street, not far from central Los Angeles.
1975 CE Laotian, Hmong and Mien Refugees Arrive from Laos
With the end of the war in Vietnam some 70,000 Laotian, 60,000 Hmong, and 10,000 Mien people arrived in the U.S. as refugees bringing their religious traditions, including Buddhism, with them.
1975 CE Insight Meditation Society in Rural New England
IMS was established in a former Catholic monastic center in Barre, Massachusetts, under the guidance of Joseph Goldstein, Jack Kornfield, Sharon Salzberg, and Christina Feldman for the intensive practice of vipassana meditation.
1976 CE Council of Thai Bhikkhus
The Council, a nonprofit corporation based in Denver, Colorado, became the leading nationwide network for Thai Buddhism.
1976 CE City of 10,000 Buddhas
Established in Talmage, California, by the Dharma Realm Buddhist Association as the first Chinese Buddhist monastery for both monks and nuns, the City of 10,000 Buddhas consists of sixty buildings, including elementary and secondary schools and a university, on a 237-acre site.
1976 CE First Rinzai Zen Monastery
On July 4, Dai Bosatsu Zendo Kongo-ji, America’s first Rinzai Zen monastery, was established in Lew Beach, New York, under the direction of Eido Tai Shimano-roshi.
1979 CE Cambodian Refugees Come to the U.S.
Four years of the “Killing Fields” under the regime of Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge ended with the invasion of Cambodia by Vietnam. Refugees poured across the border into Thailand. Between 1979 and 1989, 180,000 Cambodian refugees were relocated in the United States. In 1979, the Cambodian Buddhist Society was established in Silver Spring, Maryland, as the first Cambodian Buddhist temple in America. The nearly 40,000 Cambodian residents of Long Beach, California, purchased the former headquarters of the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers Union and converted the huge building into a temple complex.
1980 CE First Burmese Temple
Dhammodaya Monastery, the first Burmese Buddhist temple in America, was established in Los Angeles.
1980 CE Buddhist Sangha Council
The Buddhist Sangha Council of Los Angeles (later of Southern California) was established under the leadership of the Ven. Havanpola Ratanasara. It was one of the first cross-cultural, inter-Buddhist organizations, bringing together monks and other leaders from the entire range of Buddhist traditions.
1981 CE A History of Buddhism in America
The first edition of Rick Field’s How the Swans Came to the Lake: A Narrative History of Buddhism in America was published. It became the classic history of Buddhism in America.
1983 CE Kwan Um School of Zen
The Kwan Um School of Zen was formed as an umbrella organization to facilitate the teaching, communications, and administrative needs of the many Korean Zen centers founded by Zen Master Seung Sahn. Ground was broken for the Diamond Hill Zen Monastery, in Rhode Island, the first Korean-style monastery in the United States.
1985 CE First Laotian Temple
Though it had been operating unofficially since 1979, Wat Lao Phouthavong, the first Laotian temple in America, was legally incorporated in Catlett, Virginia.
1986 CE Buddhist Astronaut on Challenger
Lt. Col. Ellison Onizuka, a Hawaiian-born, Jodo Shinshu Buddhist was killed 73 seconds after take off in the space shuttle Challenger. He was the first Asian-American to reach space.
1987 CE Conference on World Buddhism in North America
For ten days in July, Buddhists from all the Buddhist lineages in North America came together in Ann Arbor, Michigan, for a conference intended to initiate dialogue among them and further mutual understanding and cooperation.
1987 CE Buddhists Get Organized
The Buddhist Council of the Midwest gathered twelve Chicago-area lineages of Buddhism, including traditions from five Theravada countries, four Mahayana countries, Tibet and the United States. In Los Angeles, the American Buddhist Congress was created, with 47 Buddhist organizations attending its inaugural convention as a national ecumenical Buddhist organization. And this same year, the Sri Lanka Sangha Council of North America was established in Los Angeles to be the national network for Sri Lankan Buddhism.
1987 CE Buddhist Books Gain Wider Audience
Joseph Goldstein and Jack Kornfield published what became a classic book on vipassana meditation–Seeking the Heart of Wisdom: The Path of Insight Meditation. Thich Nhat Hanh, who was residing at Plum Village in France and visiting the United States annually, published Being Peace, a classic treatment of “engaged Buddhism”–Buddhism that is concerned with social and ecological issues.
1988 CE Hsi Lai Temple in Hacienda Heights
Construction of Hsi Lai Temple, a Chinese Pure Land Buddhist temple in Hacienda Heights, California, was completed. The center of Fo Kuang Buddhism in the United States, the temple cost more than $30 million, occupies 14 acres of land, and was begun in 1967. It is the largest Buddhist temple in the western hemisphere.
1990 CE Trungpa’s Vajra Regent Dies
Tom Rich, who had been empowered as Vajra Regent Osel Tendzin in 1976, died. In 1989, he had revealed that he had AIDS and had not informed his partners. Controversy shook the movement.
1991 CE Tibetan Resettlement in the United States
The National Office of the Tibetan Resettlement Project was established in New York after the United States Congress granted 1,000 special visas for Tibetans, all of them Buddhists. Two years later the Tibetan Community Assistance Program, designed to assist Tibetans resettling in the United States, was opened in New York. Cluster groups of Tibetan refugees have established their own small temples and have begun to encounter Euro-American practitioners of Tibetan Buddhism.
1991 CE Tricycle: the Buddhist Review
The first issue of Tricycle: the Buddhist Review, a non-sectarian national Buddhist magazine was published. The journal features articles by prominent Buddhist teachers and writers as well as pieces on Buddhism and American culture at large.
1991 CE Thai Buddhists Slain in Arizona
On August 9, six Thai monks, a nun, and two novice monks were slain at Wat Promkunaram, a Thai temple and monastic complex outside Phoenix, Arizona.
1991 CE Dalai Lama in Madison Square Garden
For more than a week in October, the Dalai Lama gave the “Path of Compassion” teachings and conferred the Kalachakra Initiation in Madison Square Garden in New York City.
1992 CE Korean Zen Transmission
At the Providence Zen Center in Cumberland, Rhode Island, Zen Master Seung Sahn gave formal Dharma transmission to three American-born students, Barbara Rhodes, George Bowman, and Mu Deung Sunim, who became full Zen masters.
1993 CE Centennial of the World’s Parliament of Religions
There were many prominent Buddhist speakers at the Centennial of the Parliament in Chicago, among them Thich Nhat Hanh, Master Seung Sahn, the Ven. Mahaghosananda, and the Ven. Dr. Havanpola Ratanasara. The Dalai Lama gave the closing address. Buddhist co-sponsors of the event included the American Buddhist Congress, Buddhist Churches of America, Buddhist Council of the Midwest, Buddhist Peace Fellowship, Buddhist Society of Compassionate Wisdom, Chicago Dharmadhatu, Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research, Rissho Kosei-kai, Kwan Um School of Zen, Maha Bodhi Society, World Fellowship of Buddhists, Wat Dhammaram, Wat Thai of Washington, D.C., Won Buddhism of America.
1995 CE Buddhist Temple Construction Surges
The Vietnamese community dedicated a new Buddha Hall in Roslindale, Massachusetts. The Thai community is building new temples in Dade County, Florida; Kew Gardens, New York; and Fremont, California. Throughout the country immigrant and American-born Buddhist communities are growing and building.
2003 CE United Celebrations for the Buddha’s birthday in Boston
Over fifty Buddhist groups came together in downtown Boston to celebrate Vesak, recognizing the 2547th birthday of the Buddha, and celebrating his Enlightenment and his entering into Nirvana. Until this occasion, the Buddhist communities and organizations in Boston, as throughout the United States, had ordinarily held such celebrations independently.
2006 CE American Monk Named First U.S. Representative to World Buddhist Supreme Conference
Venerable Bhante Vimalaramsi (Sayadaw Gyi U Vimalaramsi Maha Thera) was nominated and confirmed as the first representative from the United States for the World Buddhist Supreme Conference, which is held every two years and includes representatives from fifty countries.
2007 CE First Buddhist Congresswoman Sworn In
Rep. Mazie Hirono, a Democrat from Hawaii, was the first Buddhist to be sworn into Congress.
Buddhism in Greater Boston (text)
1844 CE Henry David Thoreau’s English translation of the Lotus Sutra is published.
1870 CE 150 Chinese workers arrive in Massachusetts.
1879 CE Sir Edwin Arnold publishes The Light of Asia.
1882 CE US Congress passes Chinese Exclusion Act.
1924 CE Immigration Act of 1924 is passed.
1943 CE Chinese Exclusion Act is repealed.
1957 CE Cambridge Buddhist Association (CBA) is founded.
1959 CE Professorship in Buddhist Studies is established at Harvard.
1965 CE Immigration and Nationality Act is passed.
1968 CE Soka Gakkai International–New England is established in Waltham (now residing in Woburn).
1971 CE Dharmadhatu Center (now Shambhala Meditation Center) is established.
1973 CE Cambridge Zen Center is founded.
1975 CE Insight Meditation Society is founded in Barre.
1978 CE American Buddhist Shim Gum Do Association is founded in Brighton.
1985 CE Cambridge Insight Meditation Center is founded.
1985 CE Sounsa Buddhist Temple is founded in Paxton.
1986 CE Triratanaram Temple is founded in North Chelmsford.
1989 CE Kurukulla Center for Tibetan Buddhist Studies is founded in Medford.
1989 CE Glory Buddhist Temple/Banlieu Buddha Cakra is founded in Lowell.
1990 CE Immigration Act of 1990 is passed.
1996 CE Thousand Buddha Temple is founded in Quincy.
1996 CE Wat Buddhabhavana is founded in Westford.
1998 CE Wat Boston Buddha Vararam is founded in Bedford.
1999 CE LamRim Buddhist Center is founded in Brookline.
1999 CE Greater Boston Buddhist Cultural Center is founded in Cambridge.
2003 CE Won Buddhism of Boston temple is founded in Somerville.
2003 CE New England Buddhist Vihara & Meditation Center is founded in Framingham.
2006 CE Open Circle Zen Group is founded in Somerville.
2007 CE Nichiren Buddhist Sangha of Greater New England is founded in Haverhill.
2000 CE Replica of Jowo Rinpoche statue is installed at Jokhang Institute.
2009 CE His Holiness the Dalai Lama visits Boston to open the new Dalai Lama Center for Ethics and Transformative Values at MIT.
Selected Publications & Links
The Bahá’í Faith in Greater Boston
1899 Mrs. Kate C. Ives becomes the first Bahá’í in Boston.
The Green Acre Bahá’í School is established in Eliot, Maine, becoming an important learning center for Bahá’ís and non-Bahá’ís in Greater Boston and across the United States.
1905 Regular Bahá’í meetings are established in Boston, either in the homes of individual believers or in public spaces acquired for specific events.
1908 The first Bahá’í governing board is elected, taking the name of “Executive Committee,” the equivalent of the first Local Spiritual Assembly of Boston.
1912 ‘Abdu’l-Bahá visits Greater Boston in the months of May, July, and August, and gives ten public addresses and lectures.
1913 The Boston Bahá’í community rents a room on Huntington Avenue for its weekly public meetings.
1914 The Boston Bahá’í community moves its public space to the S.S. Pierce building in Copley Square.
1919 The Boston Bahá’í community rents a twelve-room house on Charles Street. All of these locations are used to host weekly public meetings of what will later become the Boston Bahá’í Center.
1926 The Boston Bahá’í community hosts a “World Unity Conference” as part of a series sponsored by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States. A report of the conference is published in the Boston Evening Transcript.
1940 The Local Spiritual Assembly of Boston is incorporated on April 5.
1945 The Boston Bahá’í community hosts “Race Unity Day.”
1950 The Boston Bahá’í Center is established at 116 Commonwealth Avenue. Weekly public meetings and youth gatherings are held here.
1952 The Boston Bahá’í Center moves into the Kensington building at 585 Boylston Street, a significant move as it was in this very building that ‘Abdu’l-Bahá had given one of His many addresses during His visit to Boston in 1912.
Members of the Boston Bahá’í community appear on the “Our Believing World” television program on station WBZ-TV and present some of the core teachings and principles of the Bahá’í Faith.
1960 Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khanum, a prominent and renowned Bahá’í and the wife of Shoghi Effendi, the head of the Bahá’í Faith from 1921–1957, visits the Boston Bahá’í community, and offers several addresses during her visit.
1967 The Boston Bahá’í Center moves to 40 St. Botolph Street.
1977 The Boston Bahá’í Center establishes a lending library as well as regular programming for children and collective teaching activities to share the message of Bahá’u’lláh.
1986 The city council of Cambridge and the Mayor release a proclamation recommending that the whole city read and take to heart: The Promise of World Peace, a document prepared by the Universal House of Justice. It can be found online at: http://info.bahai.org/article-1-7-2-1.html
1990 The Boston Bahá’í Center moves to 495 Columbus Avenue.
1993 The Boston Bahá’í Center moves to its current location at 595 Albany Street.
1996 – present The Greater Boston Bahá’í community adopts and employs a systematic approach to grassroots community development taking root in Bahá’í communities all over the world, based around four core activities: study circles, children’s classes, junior youth groups, and devotional meetings.
2008 The Boston Bahá’í community participates in one of 41 regional conferences convened by the Universal House of Justice. These conferences marked the midway point of a five-year effort to expand Bahá’í activities at the grassroots level. The Boston Bahá’í community attends the conference in Stamford, Connecticut. A report from this conference can be found online.
Buddhism arrived in Boston in the 19th century with the first Chinese immigrants to the city and a growing intellectual interest in Buddhist arts and practice. Boston’s first Buddhist center was the Cambridge Buddhist Association (1957). The post-1965 immigration brought new immigrants into the city—from Cambodia and Vietnam, as well as Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Korea. These groups brought with them a variety of Buddhist traditions, now practiced at over 90 area Buddhist centers and temples. Representing nearly every ethnicity, age, and social strata, the Buddhist community of Greater Boston is a vibrant presence in the city.