Zion is a sacred hill in Jerusalem and refers, by extension, to Jerusalem and the homeland of the Hebrew people. In this latter sense, Zion came to symbolize Jewish national-religious hopes of renewal and Zionism became the name of the 19th and 20th century movement to create a new homeland for the Jewish people in Israel. These hopes were fulfilled, at least in part, through the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948. Zionism has penetrated Jewish life overwhelmingly, and plays an extremely important role in the identity of Jews, as individuals and communities.