Parshvanath, the 23rd Tirthankara of the Jain tradition, is said to have lived in the 9th and 8th centuries BCE. Traditional accounts state that Parshvanath, after reigning as king in Varanasi, took up the life of an ascetic, thereby attaining enlightenment. He spent the rest of his life teaching, until his bodily death and final liberation in 720 BCE.