The Lingbao Daoist tradition first arose in 4th century China to provide an indigenous alternative to Buddhism that was open to more general participation than was possible in the rigorous meditative tradition of Shangqing Daoism. To do so, Lingbao priests appropriated many of the scriptures and practices of the Shangqing tradition, but reinterpreted them so that they provided guidance not only for individual cultivation, but rather for universal salvation. Lingbao rituals continue to play an important role in Daoist practice to this day.