Shoghi Effendi (1897–1957) succeeded his grandfather, 'Abdu’l-Bahá, as the head of the Bahá’í Faith in 1921. In order to give the Bahá’í Faith organization, Shoghi Effendi established the institutional structure of local and national spiritual assemblies based on principles delineated in 'Abdu’l-Bahá’s Will and Testament and in Bahá’u’lláh’s writings. He translated many of Bahá’u’lláh’s works into English and wrote letters and essays (some 34,000 altogether) defining and clarifying many basic Baha'i teachings. He used the administrative institutions as an instrument for spreading the Bahá’í Faith systematically worldwide. Before his death in 1957, Shoghi Effendi appointed twenty-seven Bahá’ís as “Hands of the Cause of God.” They served as joint custodians of the Bahá’í Faith for five years after his death, until the Universal House of Justice could be elected.