Amina Wadud (2005)

The Woman-Led PrayerPrayer is the vocal or silent address to the Divine. It may consist of fixed words, spontaneous words, or rest in silence with no words at all. Some forms of prayer are accompanied with specific postures or gestures, while others are not. that Catalyzed Controversy

On March 18, 2005, Dr. Amina Wadud made waves when she led Muslim prayersPrayer is the vocal or silent address to the Divine. It may consist of fixed words, spontaneous words, or rest in silence with no words at all. Some forms of prayer are accompanied with specific postures or gestures, while others are not. in New York City, a ritual almost always reserved for men. Wadud is an African-American activist and a professor of Islamic studies at Virginia Commonwealth University. She is a well-known scholar of IslamIslam in Arabic literally means “submitting” or “submission.” One who submits or surrenders his or her will to God is called a Muslim. While the whole of God’s creation is described as being inherently Muslim, human beings must choose whether to... and is also author of the book Qur’an and Woman: Rereading the Sacred Text from a Woman’s Perspective. Contrary to most followers of Islam, she believes Muslim women should be able to lead prayers. Wadud’s research of the Qur’an and the customs of ProphetA prophet is one who communicates a divine message or vision, sometimes calling people to repentance or awakening, sometimes predicting future events. Jews, Christians, and Muslims all look to Hebrew prophets, including Abraham and Moses. Muslims believe ... MuhammadThe Prophet Muhammad, known as “the Seal of the Prophets,” was born in the city of Makkah on the Arabian peninsula in 570 C.E. At 40, he began to receive a series of revelations from God through the angel Gabriel. His small group of followers met with... demonstrate that nothing prohibits women from leading prayers and, furthermore, that Prophet Muhammad approved such practices. Wadud seeks to reaffirm the role of women as spiritual leaders, a position that has been lost over the centuries.

The service led by Wadud was held at Synod House at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine, an EpiscopalEpiscopal refers to any church in which authority is vested in a bishop (Greek episkopos). More particularly it refers to the Episcopal Church in America, which developed from the Church of England after the American Revolution. churchThe term church has come to wide use to refer to the organized and gathered religious community. In the Christian tradition, church refers to the organic, interdependent “body” of Christ’s followers, the community of Christians. Secondarily, church ... in Manhattan. Three mosquesMasjid (plural masajid) in Arabic means “place of prostration,” or the place where Muslims bow in prayer; in English, this word has become “mosque.” A masjid contains a prayer hall in which there is a mihrab or prayer niche, and a minbar or pulpit... and an art gallery had previously turned down Wadud after receiving bomb threats. 80 to 100 people were in attendance at the service, with men and women equally represented. Most of the women were wearing the hijabHijab means “veil” or “curtain,” referring especially to standards of modest dress for Muslim women. While there are many interpretations of the legal requirement, many Muslims agree that women should wear loose fitting clothing and expose no more... (headscarf). In traditional Islamic custom, women are required to pray in rows behind men or in an entirely different part of the mosqueMasjid (plural masajid) in Arabic means “place of prostration,” or the place where Muslims bow in prayer; in English, this word has become “mosque.” A masjid contains a prayer hall in which there is a mihrab or prayer niche, and a minbar or pulpit.... Many theologians believe that it is inappropriate for a woman to kneel in front of men during prayers. Such theologians explain this by citing that a woman’s (sexual) presence can distract a man, particularly because Muslim prayers are more physical and involve bending, bowing and prostrating.

The March 18 prayer led by Wadud and co-sponsored by
and the Muslim Women’s Freedom Tour catalyzed both positive excitement and negative outrage among the Muslim community worldwide. According to the Progressive Muslim Union of North America (PMU): “The goal of the New York City woman-led, mixed gender prayer was not to impose this particular style of prayer on others, but to be part of a challenge of the current status quo, which attempts to dictate one style of prayer on everyone, namely where men lead, and women stay behind. Our point in endorsing woman-led prayer and launching the Prayer Initiative is not so much to dictate how people should pray, but rather to insist that a wide spectrum of interpretations be respected and discussed.”[1]

Negative Reaction & Reasoning

In reaction, unsurprisingly, Wadud received warnings from sheiks that called her actions heresy, and death threats prompted by fatwas (legal opinions by Islamic scholars) issued against her. Sheik Yousef al-Qaradawi, a leading Islamic scholar based in Qatar, commented in reaction to Wadud’s actions: “[All Islamic scholars] agree that women do not lead men in (performing) religious duties…one wishes our sisters who are enthusiastic about women’s rights would revive the practice of women leading women in prayers, instead of coming up with the heresy of women leading men in prayers.”[2] Islam, according to such critics, forbids women to lead prayers unless it is in private and solely in the presence of other women. Muslim religious leaders in the Middle East similarly complained that Wadud’s prayer violated centuries of tradition. Opposition to woman-led prayers is indeed more widespread than support for such acts. Many opponents cite the potential for fitna, or the sexual power that women possess over men, as a primary reason to deny females this practice. According to the Islamic faith, fitna, which causes uncontrollable desire in men, is dangerous because it can lead to social chaos. UCLA Law Professor Khaled Abou El Fadl points out, however, that A’isha, the Prophet’s wife, at one time slept next to the Prophet when he was leading prayers.[3]

The Argument for Muslim Women as Religious Leaders

The argument for Muslim women as potential religious leaders, however, finds contextual support in Islamic texts. Um Salama, a woman of the Prophet’s time, was a religious authority as was A’isha, the Prophet’s wife. “According to El Fadl, ‘About 30% (if not more) of Islamic jurisprudence was created by these two women.'”[4] The Muslim Women’s League (MWL) cites, furthermore, that for Sunni MuslimsSunni Muslims emphasize the authoritative role of the consensus of religious scholars (‘ulama) in interpreting the Qur’an and the Sunnah (custom) of the Prophet. The community could thus choose any good Muslim as a successor (khalifah) to Muhammad, th..., a large part of hadithHadith is a narrative account or report of Muhammad’s deeds and actions. These reports were preserved and later collected to form the Sunnah of the prophet, second only to the authority of the Qur’an for knowing how to live in proper submission to God... literature (a narration about the life of the Prophet) is based on the testimony of one of the Prophet’s wives, A’isha (his favorite). For Shi’ite Muslims, there is a similar sense of importance connected to hadith narrated from Fatima, the prophet’s daughter.[5] Examples such as these were referenced in papers by the Muslim Women’s League in 1995 in preparation for its participation in the United Nations’ 4th World Conference on Women. The MWL also notes that the Qur’an does not have much to say on the issue of women leading prayer, except for one example in the Traditions compiled by Abu Dawud. In it, Prophet Muhammed instructed Umm Waraqa bint Abdullah to lead her household and its inhabitants, which included at least one man, in prayer because she was the most knowledgeable Qur’anic scholar in her community.[6] Many Islamic traditionalists, however, dismiss such evidence and cite Um Salama and A’isha as exceptions to the patriarchal standard. They note that because no woman today is close to the Prophet as Um Salama and A’isha were, no woman is comparable.

Adapting Islam in the West: Dr. Wadud’s Perspective

Traditional interpretations of Islam face challenges in the US where women’s suffrage movements and advocacy for social equality comprise a significant portion of recent history. Moreover, the Islamic faith in general has become subject to premature assumptions due to the 9/11 terrorist attacks committed by an isolated group of fundamentalist Muslims. In the Pluralism Project’s CD-Rom On Common Ground: World Religions in America, Dr. Wadud reflects on the image of Islam in the West: “[T]he funny thing is that in America, people know less about what the Qur’an says than they know anything else about Islam. The sad thing is that Muslims know more about a lot of stuff than they know about the Qur’an…They know tradition, culture, lies, history; they don’t know the book.” Wadud seeks to correct this imbalance in her work as both a teacher and an activist.

The On Common Ground profile of Dr. Wadud notes that she adopted Islam at age 20. She had been raised MethodistThe Methodist church is a Protestant communion of churches which began in England with John Wesley (1703-91) and has become a worldwide movement. In the U.S., the United Methodist Church—one of the largest Protestant denominations—is known for its str..., but after living in a Buddhist community for a year (which expanded her spiritual understanding) and receiving a Qur’an, she converted to Islam. Islam has since remained at the center of her life. Wadud is also quoted as emphasizing, “Islam clarified for me that no, I don’t have to turn the other cheek to oppression. I can stand up for what is just and what is right. It doesn’t mean that I have to violently resist, but it does mean that I’m allowed to say, ‘I don’t go for that. I don’t have to go for that. That’s not how GodGod is a term used to refer to the Divine, the Supreme being, Transcendent deity, or Ultimate reality. intended it, that’s not a part of basic humanity.” Refusing to ‘turn the other cheek to oppression’ has translated into Wadud’s role as a core member of Sisters in Islam, a social advocacy group that promotes gender equality and challenges sexism within the Islamic faith. An alternative interpretation of the Qur’an, one that incorporates the female voice, is also explored in Wadud’s book, Qur’an and Woman: Rereading the Sacred Text from a Woman’s Perspective.

In a 2002 PBS Frontline Interview (2002) with Amina Wadud, the scholar comments on gender leadership in Islam: “My contention is that patriarchy is one way of survival, but that its time has ended; that it is no longer possible for us to save the planet, to sustain our lives on the planet, to be able to have healthy relations, whether in families or in communities at large or between nations, if we maintain our projection on a patriarchal framework. We need one that is a lot more cooperative. I think that this is one of the reasons why it has been palpable that more women have been involved in many areas of progression, not just in terms of Islam, but also coincidentally in terms of Islam. Islam, in its original articulation, is very patriarchal. There are aspects of Qur’anic articulation that corroborate the patriarchy of the time. Yet I do [not think] that patriarchy is an aspect of Islam’s universality. I think it is a functional displacement, which allowed for it to fit into the time….”[7]

Acts of Muslim Women’s Advocacy: Asra Nomani & Others

Dr. Wadud is one of many Muslim women raising their voices and letting their message of gender equality in the Islamic faith be heard. Asra Nomani is a former Wall Street Journal reporter as well as the author of a book on Muslim women entitled Standing Alone in MeccaMakkah (also spelled Mecca) is the birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, the hub of the caravan trade in the Arabian Peninsula, and the site of the holy Ka’bah. After receiving the first revelations of the Qur’an on a mountain outside Makkah, Muhammad d...: An American Woman’s Struggle for the SoulThe soul is the inner spirit, the life-essence of a person, regarded in many religious traditions as Divine. In the Hindu tradition, the atman or pure consciousness within is understood to be one with Brahman, the ultimate reality that pervades the entire... of Islam. She has spearheaded efforts to give Muslim women a platform. Nomani, described by many as a liberal feminist, created the Muslim Women’s Freedom Tour which co-sponsored Wadud’s service. The Washington Post reports that one caller left Nomani a threatening message in Urdu noting: “If you want to stay alive, keep your mouth shut.” The message went on to say that if Nomani did not comply, her throat would be slit and her parents slaughtered. The caller added that he knew where they all lived. Ten minutes later, he called her parents to reinforce his message.

In addition to participating in the first woman-led prayers in New York, Nomani has also prayed in the male section of mosques such as at the Washington Islamic CenterAn Islamic center will typically include a mosque, school, and area for social and cultural activities. When a new Islamic center is being organized in the United States, attention is paid to community needs, including a weekend or full-time school, indic... and the Islamic Center of Southern California in Los Angeles. Nomani also organized a prayer service on March 25, 2005 in Boston led by Boston resident Nakia Jackson. The event made Jackson the second woman ever to lead the sacred Friday prayers. Vehement protestors appeared at the event to voice their disapproval. On April 8, 2005, Nomani and a female Maryland tax attorney named Rahat Khan prayed beside men in Washington’s Islamic Center, a core center for American Muslims. At 12:30 PM there were 600 men in the Washington mosque and 100 women in the basement. Nomani and Khan were told by a handful of men to go downstairs, but they stood their ground and were able to remain peacefully in the main hall and to pray alongside Muslim men who made space for them. The prayer leader, furthermore, did not interfere with the women’s symbolic act of defiance. Despite fears of violence and warnings from friends, Khan was prompted to pray alongside the men in the mosque because she believes that Islam has given her a sense of equal status.[8]

Egyptian Islamic law official Ali Gomaa and Libyan leader Muammar al-Qaddafi are a couple of Nomani’s critics whose backlash Nomani has had to confront. These men cite that a woman-led prayer is in direct opposition to Islamic law and unacceptable. Nomani has responded to such criticism by remarking, “The violent reaction we’re getting from people in power is the result of efforts to maintain their power and their control over the masses…[w]e won’t accept their corrupt thinking anymore. We’re confident in the validity and righteousness of what we’re doing.”[9]

Since the actions of women such as Wadud, Nomani, and Khan, woman-led prayers in North America have spread. On July 1, 2005, Pamela Taylor became the first woman to lead Friday prayers in a Canadian mosque. Taylor is an American convert to Islam and co-chair of the New York-based Progressive Muslim Union. More than 100 people of mixed gender attended the service at the United Muslim Association mosque in Toronto on “Canada Day.” In addition to leading the prayers, Taylor also gave a sermon on the importance of equality among genders, races, sexual orientations and people with disabilities. Protestors threatened to show up to the service, but never did. Formerly, in April 2005, a different Canadian woman became the first to lead a mixed-gender congregation in prayer, but the event was moved to a back yard after vehement protestors swarmed the mosque.

Status Quo

The question of whether woman-led prayer in the Islamic faith is permissable remains open to debate. While some critics and scholars maintain that such acts are blasphemous, the progressive movement argues that denying women the right to lead Islamic prayers is blatant social injustice. According to such progressives, prohibiting the existence of female imamsImam means “leader,” particularly the person who leads the daily ritual prayer or, more broadly, to the one who serves as a leader of the community because of his religious learning. In Shi’i Islam, it refers to one of a succession of direct descend..., or prayer leaders, alludes to the greater marginalization of Muslim women within their own faith. The benefit of having female imams, moreover, is significant as female imams can better represent and empathize with Muslim women. Organizations such as the Muslim Women’s League also recognize the broader significance of woman-led prayer. They hypothesize that the disillusionment that many women have about Islam in general could perhaps be assuaged if women in the Muslim community played more important roles in their religious communities.

[1] Eltantawi, Sarah and Zuriani Zonneveld.
“The Women-led Prayer Initiative: Eltantawi and Zonneveld’s article on the Town Hall Meeting.” Progressive Muslim Union. 22 June 2005. Accessed August 2005. Available from ↩︎
[2] Abdo, Geneive. “When Islam Clashes with Women’s Rights.” The Boston Globe. 9 April 2005. Accessed August 2005. Available from ↩︎
[3] Eltantawi, Sarah and Zuriani Zonneveld.
“The Women-led Prayer Initiative:
Eltantawi and Zonneveld’s article on the Town Hall Meeting.”
Progressive Muslim Union. 22 June 2005. Accessed August 2005. Available from ↩︎
[4] Ibid. ↩︎
[5] Ibid. ↩︎
[6] “Muslim Women’s League’s Response to Woman-Led Friday Prayer.” Muslim Women’s League. 17 March 2005. Accessed August 2005. Available from ↩︎
[7] “PBS Frontline Interview: Amina Wadud.” (2002)WGBH Education Foundation. Accessed August 2005. Available from ↩︎
[8] Iqbal, Anwar. “Muslim Women Bring Prayers to Washington.” The Washington Times. 11 April 2005. Accessed August 2005. Available from ↩︎

[9] “Women-led prayers is a ‘milestone of woman liberation in Islam.'” on 24 March 2005. Accessed August 2005. Available from↩︎

3. “Friday Prayer Led by Dr. Amina Wadud @ NYC.” Muslim WakeUp! Inc. Accessed August 2005. Available from

4. Iqbal, Anwar. “Muslim Women Bring Prayers to Washington.” The Washington Times. 11 April 2005. Accessed August 2005. Available from

5. Muslim Women’s Freedom Tour. Accessed August 2005. Available at

Pluralism Project References/Resources

Photograph by AFP