Dr. Corrie Norman is the associate director of the religious studies program at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. She was formerly an assistant professor of religion at Converse College in North Carolina. During her time at Converse, Dr. Norman became an affiliate of the Pluralism Project and engaged her students in “Gender, Food, and Meaning: Mapping Religious Diversity in Charlotte, NC,” a two-part study of religious diversity in the city of Charlotte and of ritual and festival life of new immigrant religious communities.
Phase One: Mapping Charlotte
Dr. Norman writes of the project’s first phase:
Charlotte, North Carolina is the quintessential “New South” city. “Little Atlanta” has seen phenomenal growth since the 1960s and now approaches a population of two million in its metropolitanA Metropolitan is the title given to a bishop, used especially in the Orthodox family of churches today. area. Much of that growth is due to the arrival of international business, primarily in banking and industrial production. While its religious landscape remains overwhelmingly Christian, new religious communities are becoming visible and vital in Charlotte. A large Hindu TempleA temple is a house of worship, a sacred space housing the deity or central symbol of the tradition. The Temple in Jerusalem was the holy place of the Jewish people until its destruction by the Romans in 70 CE; now the term “temple” is used by th. Ref..., four Buddhist, and two Islamic centersAn Islamic center will typically include a mosque, school, and area for social and cultural activities. When a new Islamic center is being organized in the United States, attention is paid to community needs, including a weekend or full-time school, indic... are the most obvious witnesses to the influx of new immigrants who attempt to practice their faiths in a city with a major parkway named for Billy Graham.
Converse College is located in Spartanburg, South Carolina, about one hour southwest of Charlotte. Many Converse students come from the Charlotte area and practically all Converse students become familiar with Charlotte as our nearest large city. Converse, Spartanburg, Charlotte, and indeed our students have in common the advantages and challenges of a growing region. Questions about identity, tradition, and diversity loom large. For our students, studying how groups and individuals make meaning in this context is not just interesting; it can be personally transformative. We propose to begin with the most obvious religious communities mentioned above and then pursue smaller , less visible groups as the project continues. Our intention is to fully map the Charlotte area, primarily over the summers, for the next three years. While we will examine the range of factors suggested by the Pluralism Project, we will also pay particular attention to gender roles and foodways, central to our study in the second phase of our research.
Students participated in the mapping project based on application to Professor Norman. They must have taken one introductory course in Religion that examines religious pluralism. (We currently have four courses that include units on religious pluralism: Introduction to Religion, Religion in America, Comparative Religion, and The Christian Tradition (which contains a unit on ChristianityChristianity is the religious tradition of Christians: those who confesses faith in Jesus Christ, follow the path Christ taught, and gather together in the community of the church. and relationships with other religions). A new course, “Religious Contact and Exchange In Charlotte,” was offered during Winter Term 2002 and focused on the Pluralism Project research. Students were selected in the Spring Term 2001 for work in Summer 2001. They were urged to attend a session on teaching Asian religions in the South at the Regional Meeting of the American Academy of Religion in Charlotte. At that session, students and faculty from two Pluralism Project Affiliates (Furman and UNC ChapelA chapel is a place of worship, smaller than the sanctuary of a church or synagogue, or in an institutional setting such as a college or hospital. Hill) discussed their experiences. Students also participate in the development of a website on which their research was posted.
Selected Links and Publications
- Center Profiles
- Bnai Israel Temple (2006)
- Ash Shaheed Islamic Center (2003)
- Charlotte Bahá’í Community (2003)
- Church of the Advent (2003)
- Cleveland Chapel Baptist Church (2005)
- Community of Khmer Buddhist Monks Temple Watsaosoksan of South Carolina (2010)
- Crossroads Community Church (2003)
- Gogginsville United Methodist Church (2006)
- Hindu Center of Charlotte (2003)
- Islamic Center of Charlotte (2003)
- Islamic Society Of Greater Charlotte (ISGC) (2003)
- Jain Community of Charlotte (2003)
- Masjid Ali Shah Center (2003)
- Mount Moriah Baptist Church (2003)
- Pleasant Grove Baptist Church (2003)
- Saint Theresa the Little Flower Catholic Church (2008)
- Shamans of the Willow Moon (2006)
- Shri Akshar Purushotam Swaminarayan (2006)
- The Sikh Heritage Society of Greater Charlotte (2006)
- The Unitarian Universalist Church of Spartanburg (2007)
- Union United Methodist Church (2005)
Phase Two: Studying Food, Gender, and Identity among the Religious Communities of Upstate South Carolina and Western North Carolina
Dr. Norman wrote of Phase Two:
Food is one of the first things people think of when they think of the South. For southerners, the South is food. In this region, the only places more prominent than churchesThe term church has come to wide use to refer to the organized and gathered religious community. In the Christian tradition, church refers to the organic, interdependent “body” of Christ’s followers, the community of Christians. Secondarily, church ... are meat -and-three restaurants, fried chicken stands, and barbeque shacks. Joining these in growing numbers are a variety of “ethnic” restaurants—Thai, Cambodian, Indian. Often, in these mostly modest establishments, religious images can be found. While many “native” southerners no doubt think of these as “idols” or decoration, they give silent witness to religious faith as the “natives” enjoy the new cuisines that speak to them of distant, exotic places in a language they may find appetizing, but often unintelligible. At local festivals, along with pound cakes baked by MethodistThe Methodist church is a Protestant communion of churches which began in England with John Wesley (1703-91) and has become a worldwide movement. In the U.S., the United Methodist Church—one of the largest Protestant denominations—is known for its str... missionary societies and rumballs soaked and rolled by EpiscopalianEpiscopal refers to any church in which authority is vested in a bishop (Greek episkopos). More particularly it refers to the Episcopal Church in America, which developed from the Church of England after the American Revolution. altarAn altar is a raised platform or stand which bears the central symbols of a religious tradition—whether in a temple, church, shrine, or home—and at which offerings are made, worship is offered, or prayers are said. guilds, foods of Asian, Hispanic, and Middle Eastern origin are increasingly offered for sale. They too, often represent religious traditions and are the most visible signs of these new communities. Eggrolls and curries speak of the presence of Cambodian Buddhists and Indian Hindus. Food is of central importance to most religious peoples. It ties the sacred to the everyday; and participants to each other, the ancestors, sacred places, and the godsThe term god with a small “g” is used to refer to a deity or class of deities whose power is understood to be circumscribed or localized rather than universal, or to refer to a plurality of deities..
The good Christians of the South are not the only ones, however, who can enjoy “foreign” foods and yet understand little of the significance they speak about cultures. For all its significance, food is among the most overlooked aspects in the study of religion. Perhaps among the reasons for this have been its very ubiquity, its mundaneness and its association with “women’s work.” While men may preside over most aspects of religious traditions visible to the public, and even dominate the public performances of food rituals in many cases, there is often another world of “women’s religion” centered on food or in the kitchen and out of the public eye. In new situations, women’s formerly private activities may take on new public significance , for food is a vehicle of communication. While many of its messages go unheard, the message of hospitality is usually understood. Food can be the bridge between new communities and their past; it can also be the bridge between new communities and their new home.
The research team intended to learn how to hear what the foodways and food rituals of the newest immigrant religious groups are telling us about faith, identity, and meaning in the New South. Dr. Norman articulated several reasons why Converse College had an interesting vantage point from which to pursue this study:
First, it is a women’s college. Its main mission is the education of women; central to that mission is the study of women and the analysis of gender. It also seeks to be a resource for women in the community at large and to serve as a base for understanding the history and current status of women in the area. Second, its location places Converse not only in a region undergoing transition,but also in the vicinity of several important , growing southern cities of varying personality. Spartanburg is an hour or less from the mountain retreat of Asheville, the business hub Charlotte, and its “sibling rival” for dominance in the upstate, Greenville. Each of these cities has seen the emergence of new religious groups in the past two decades. Third, two schools in the region have already conducted work with the Pluralism Project on which we may expand. Furman and Warren Wilson have or are currently mapping Asheville and South Carolina. Professors Stulting and Sommers have been consulted about our proposal, are supportive of it, and have graciously agreed to cooperate with us. Finally, Converse has recently developed an Honors Program for its academically gifted students. This program seeks to provide special opportunities for learning, emphasizing interdisciplinary work and student research.
Dr. Norman, whose current area of research concerns food and religion in early modern Italy, developed a year-long Honors course in 2001-2002 in which the research for Phase Two played a central role. In Phase Two, building on the mapping projects, researchers identifed several religious communities in the region for which foodways and food rituals were central to their community and identity. They examined the following :
- how foodways help to maintain identity in a new context for immigrant religious groups.
- how religious ritual/activity involving food develops/adapts among immigrant groups in a new context.
- how foodways serve as a bridge to the community for immigrant religious groups.
- how foodways serve as a window into women’s religious identity and devotion in new religious groups.
The research team also compared the foodways in new groups with some established ProtestantProtestant is a term used for the range of reform movements that broke with the Roman Catholic Church during the period called the Reformation. There are many branches of Protestantism, including the Lutherans, Anabaptists, Anglicans, Methodists, Baptists... churches, a new Hispanic Catholic community, and two minority religious communities that have quite successfully employed foodways in their public identity: Greek OrthodoxIn general, orthodox means having a “correct opinion or outlook” and is a term used by people in many religions who claim authority for traditional views and forms of their religion. and Jewish.
Besides information preserved in text, foodways were documented via videotape and photography. Students participating in this phase were enrolled in REL330Honors: “Gender, Food, and Meaning” and were eligible to continue their research in the summer of 2002.
In Phase Three, the team aimed to produce a high-quality film documentary based on their research in cooperation with a regional Public Broadcasting Service affiliate.
Selected Links and Publications
- Chapter: “Food and Religion,” in The Oxford Handbook of Food History (Oxford University Press), 2012.
- Chapter: “Reading Foodways as Faithways in Contemporary America,” in Faith in America: Changes, Challenges, New Directions, Volume II (Westport: Praeger), 2006.
- Research Paper: Savoring the Sacred: Understanding Religion Through Food (Corrie Norman, Phi Kappa Phi Forum, Summer 2003)
- Student Research Paper: Women and Religious Diversity in the South: Encounters with Muslim Women in the Carolinas (Heather Barclay, Pluralism Project AAR Pre-Conference, November 21-22, 2003)
- Student Food Reports
- B’nai Israel Temple: Jewish Food = Jewish Identity (Carolyn Bone and Elizabeth Shirk, December 2002)
- B’nai Israel Temple: Oneg Shabbat (Carolyn Bone and Elizabeth Shirk, December 2002)
- The B’nai Israel Temple Bake Sale (Carolyn Bone and Elizabeth Shirk, December 2002)
- Cleveland Chapel Baptist Church: Communion as an Initiation Meal to Welcome New Members (Ginnie Carter, December 9, 2004)
- Cleveland Chapel Baptist Church: Fasting, Call, and Community (Ginnie Carter, December 9, 2004)
- Cleveland Chapel Baptist Church: Feasts in White (Joanna Boland, December 9, 2004)
- Divine Foods Hare Krishna Ramabar Factory (Heather Barclay and Alison Turner, Summer 2003)
- Shri Akshar Purushotam Swaminarayan: Women and Youth in the BAPS Community (Jessica Price and Ashley Kirstein, December 13, 2002)
- Shri Akshar Purushotam Swaminarayan: The Hindu New Year: Food and Meaning in Ankot and Diwali (Ashante Thompson and Manjula Warad, December 2002)